Newport Past

Newport Lordship and Castle in the Later Middle Ages. Chronological Chart and References.

© Bob Trett 2007

After the king (Henry II) had gone from Cardiff as far as Castell Newyd ar Uysc (Newport - literally 'Newcastle upon Usk' in Welsh), he sent to require Iorwerth, son of Owain (Iorwerth was lord of Caerleon), to come to an interview with him, and to discourse about peace, giving a safe conduct to himself and to his sons. And as Owain, son of Iorwerth, a finely grown and amiable young man, was preparing, by the advice of his father, and liege men, to accompany his father to the court of the king, a man of the earl of Bristol met him upon the road coming from Cardiff, and killed him. And when he was killed, then his father, with his brother Howel, and many others, not trusting on that account to the king, destroyed by every means the territory of the king, as far as Hereford and Gloucester, by killing and burning and laying waste, without mercy.

Brut Y Tywysogion or The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales Edited and translated by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel 1860. page 219.

Et in emendatione castelli Novi Burgi et domorum et pontium, et ad defensionem maris . vj. L. et . xiiij s . et xd.
(And for repairs to the castle of New Borough (Newport) and its buildings and bridge, and to defences from the sea 6 pounds 14 shillings and 10 pence)

Pipe Roll (i.e. annual audited accounts of the king) 31 Henry II Volume 34 page 6.

Undated (1186-1189)
Notification by William, bishop of Landav, to archdeacons, deans, parsons, vicars, and the faithful of Holy Church in the bishopric of Landav, that William de Bendengis, keeper of the castle of Newport, in contempt of the mother church of Newport, to which the chapel of the castle, from its foundation, was accustomed to owe its service, has caused the chapel to be disserved by its proper chaplain, the monks of Gloucester (who held St Woolos Church) reclaiming, and Helias, the dean, who in their name possesses the church of Newport, complains that this was done in prejudice of the mother church of Newport.
The monks have since often sought justice from the bishop and have also brought letters from B(aldwin), archbishop of Canterbury, to show justice to them. At length, being certified by the assertion and testimony of faithful men of the right of the monks, the bishop has returned the chapel solemnly, in chapter at Struguill (Chepstow),to the hand of Thomas, abbot of Gloucester, freely and quit, in the bishop's presence, saving the service, which the mother church was accustomed to do in the said chapel, in the time of his predecessors, constables.

Translation by James Conway Davies Episcopal Acts Relating to Welsh Dioceses 1066-1272 Vol. II. page 670.
Published in Latin by W.H. Hart Historia et Cartilarium Monasterii S. Petri Gloucestriæ 1863. Vol. II. No. DIII, pages 48-49

Et in operatione trium castellorum . scilicet Caerdif . Nofburo . et Neth lviij li, et xviij s. et vj d.
(And for work on three castles called Cardiff, Newport and Neath 58 pounds 18 shillings and 6 pence) At this time the castle would have been in Royal hands.

Pipe Roll (audited accounts of the king) 6 John (Volume 22 page 221)

Simon de Montfort again besieged, took, and levelled the castle of Monmouth which the earl of Gloucester had lately got into his power. Then the king (Henry III) and he directing their steps to the inner part of Wales towards Glamorgan so that they might cross over to Bristol in hired ships from Newport situated at the mouth of the river Usk on Severn sea, the said earl (de Montfort) devastated the land on the aforesaid bank and beyond with sword and fire, namely with the troops of Llewelyn, having gained auxiliary forces, he spared neither women or children but both in churches and outside cruelly tortured them and took them prisoners.

Joseph Bradney A History of Monmouthshire Volume5 The Hundred of Newport. (edited by Madeleine Gray) 1993. page 23. Refers to Rev. H.R. Laud (editor) Flores Historiarum, per Matthaeum Westmonasteriensem collecti (Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptoresno 95. 1890) III, 3.

Fourteen shillings spent on the repair of the castle roof

A.C. Reeves Newport Lordship 1317-1536 1979. page 139
National Archive S.C.6/1202/9, m. 11.

Newport Castle and town (then in the hands of High Despenser) fell to Hugh Audley, Roger Damory, Roger Mortimer and his son, Humphrey de Bohan, earl of Hereford, and other lords, after a siege of 4 days.

A.C. Reeves in Newport Lordship, 1317-1536. 1979. pages 18-19. and subsequent pages for following un-attributed references.

1321 September 25
By the king at Westminster.
To Hugh Daudele (Audley), the younger, concerning the castle and town of Neuport, with the county and land of Wenthelok and the land of Maghay, which belonged to Hugh le Despenser, the younger, together with Hugh's goods and chattels there, to be delivered to Adam de Brom, king's clerk.

Calendar of Close Rolls. 15 Edward II. (Volume 1318-1323) page 402

1321 November 28
By the king at Broken bridge on the Thames.
To Hugh Daudele, the younger. Order to deliver to Master John Walewayn, the escheator this side Trent, the castle and town of Neuport, with the county and land of Wenthelok and the land of Maghaghay, together with the goods and chattels of the aforesaid Hugh le Despenser, the younger, the said Hugh Daudele having written, in reply to the king's previous order to deliver the above to Adam de Brom, that he has no lands of Hugh le Despenser, the younger, in his custody, but that he holds the castle and lands above specified as the inheritance and purparty of Margaret his wife, which fell to her in Wales of the lands of Gilbert de Clare, late earl of Gloucester, her brother, for which reason nothing was delivered to Adam ; which answer the king reputes as naught, especially as the said Hugh le Despenser was seised of the castle and lands aforesaid when the aforesaid Hugh Daudele and others began to prosecute him.
Mandate in pursuance to the escheator.

Calendar of Close Rolls 15 Edward II (Volume 1318-1323) page 408

Defeat of Hugh Audley and other barons at the Battle of Boroughbridge. Despenser re-acquired lands including Newport Lordship, including Newport Castle..

1322 May 3
By the king at York.
To the keeper of the park of Kaerlion and the chace of Usk. Order to cause the constable of the castle of Neuport to have 300 oaks fit for timber in the park and chace (chase) aforesaid, to repair and construct the houses and fortalices within the said castle.

Calendar of Close Rolls 15 Edward II (Volume 1318-1323 page 440).

1322 May 10
Order to the justices of the Bench to annul a judgement against Hugh Despenser the Elder and Hugh Despenser the Younger, with judgement
…… the earl of Hereford, Sir Roger de Mortimer, the nephew, Sir Roger de Mortimer, the uncle, Sir Roger Damory, Sir John de Moubray, Sir Hugh Daudele, the father, Sir Hugh Daudele, the son, …. and many others allied themselves together by oath and writings to pursue and destroy the said Hugh le Despenser, and upon this their accord they all came with their retinues on Wednesday after the Invention of the Holy Cross (Easter), in the 14th year of the king's reign (1321), to Neuport in Wales in force and arms, to wit with eight hundred men-at-arms, with the king's banner of his arms displayed, and with five hundred hobelers (light horsemen), and 10,000 footmen, in order to destroy them, and with the same power and force they besieged his towns and castles, and took them by force, and slew part of his men …. and took and carried away the goods and chattels of the said Hugh, the son, found in the said towns and castles …. The names of the castles thus taken and destroyed are: Neuport, Kaerdif, Kerfilli, Lantrissane, Talvan, Lamblethian, Kenefeg, Neoth, Drusselan, and Dinevor. And during the same time they wasted all his manors there …. and burnt some of his barns there at Neuport and elsewhere.

Calendar of Close Rolls 15 Edward II (Volume 1318-1323 pages 541-546)

Edward II deposed and Hugh Despenser executed. Audley re-acquired Newport Lordship.

1333 March
Order to Hugh de Audele or his steward for 100 men from his land at Newport to be brought to the king at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, at the king's wages, to be there a month after Easter next, to set out ultimately with the king against the Scots, who have invaded the kingdom.

Calendar of Close Rolls 7 Edward III (Volume 1333-1337 page 26)

Death of Hugh Audley. The Lordship of Newport passed to Ralph, first earl of Stafford.

1372 August 31st
Death of Ralph Stafford. The lordship passed to his son Hugh Stafford.

1385 April 13th.
The Borough of Newport granted its first charter by Hugh Stafford, second earl of Stafford.

Death of Hugh Stafford at Rhodes. He was succeeded by his grandson Thomas, third earl of Stafford, who was still a minor. During the minority the Stafford lands were committed to Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, and others.

Thomas Stafford rendered homage for his inheritance

1392 July 4th
Death of Thomas Stafford, leaving his inheritance to his younger brother, William, who customarily regarded as the fourth earl of Stafford. He was a minor and his lands were farmed (i.e. controlled during the minority) by Thomas Woodstock, duke of Gloucester.

1393 August 28

Estates of Thomas earl of Stafford. Taken at Newport.
Newport. The castle and town, and the lordship of the commote of Wenllok with its members to wit, Stowe, Rempny, Dyveles, Penkarn, and Deffren Ebboth, together with the manor, lordship and forest of Maghan annexed to the said lordship.
The extents include 13l. 16 s. 3d. rent of assize of the free borough in the said town, issues of the borough there worth 10 l. yearly, a fishery of Uske, pleas etc. of the hundred there, and of the commote of Wenllok, and lands, rents, services and courts in the aforesaid members of the lordship.
He died on 4 July last , William his brother is heir aged 14years on the morrow of St Matthew last.

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem (Volume XVIII. 15-23 Richard II)

Visit of Richard II to Newport.

Death of William Stafford. Succeeded by his brother Edmund, fifth earl of Stafford.

Edmund petitioned the king for livery of his inheritance, being then 21 years old.

1403 July 21st
Edmund, earl of Stafford, killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury. His son Humphrey, sixth earl of Stafford, not one year old. Newport Lordship granted to Humphrey's mother Anne, which she farmed to Edward, duke of York until 1415.

The mayor of Bristol ordered to ship large quantities of wheat and oats, wine and ale, and over a thousands fishes called hake, to Cardiff and Newport, for the men of arms and archers there.
Writs issued by Henry IV ordering owners of twenty-two Welsh castles, including Newport, to look to their furnishing and guard with men, victuals, armour artillery and all other things.

See: The Monmouthshire Antiquary VII (1991) page 23, Article by Jeremy Knight on Newport Castle.
Ref. Calendar of Patent Rolls Henry IV, 1401-1405 pages 296 - 297.
Also Calendar of Close Rolls Henry IV Pt. III. (lists the castles).

1403 Aug 9th
In the dower of Anne his wife from the lands of Thomas late earl of Stafford …. In his demesne as of fee of the king in chief, service unknown, he held the castle and vil of Newport and the lordship of the county of Wenllwch, with its members in Stow, Rhymney, Dowlais, Pencarn, Dyffryn and Ebbw, with the manor, lordship and forest of Machen annexed to the lordship of Wenllwch, which was worth yearly before the insurrection of Owen de Glyndourdy £215 17s., but now nothing because all burnt, destroyed, wasted and made nought by Owen and other rebels in his company.

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem Vol.XVIII 1-6 Henry IV (1399-1405) page 272

Emergency repairs carried out to the Castle, Sir Gilbert Denys 'then the captain there' being in charge of the work. The work in the first week (before Easter) involved 36 masons, 24 carpenters,8 sawyers, with 48 labourers assisting the masons, cleaning the castle ditch and clearing it of bushes.
After Easter work continued with fewer men, some working on a 'Garret' or projecting wooden structure to the rear of the gatehouse.
May 8th more workers taken on to clean out the castle ditch and clear it of bushes 'on account of rumours of the rebels reaching the Captain'.
By mid June carpenters were preparing timber 'for the Great Tower'. Work continued until late September.

See: Knight, J. (1991) page 24.
Ref: National Archives (E) 101, 487/15; (E) 136, 80/3 of 1403-05.; SC6, 924/18

Humphrey, earl of Stafford, granted livery of inheritance

1427 April 3rd

Charter of Humphrey Earl of Stafford for the Burgesses of Newport in Wales
Witnesses:- John Greseley, knight, Robert Strilley knight, William Thomas, knight, John Merbury, Hugh Erdeswyk, Robert Greindour, John Russell, William Burley, Thomas the Arblaster, John Bedulf, John Harpur and others.
Given at our castle of Newport the third day of April in the fifth year of the reign of King Henry the Sixth after the Conquest [1427]

See: Rees, W. The Charters of the Borough of Newport in Gwynllwg (1951) (translated from the original charter in Newport Museum)

Work under way on the South Tower, next to the bridge. (Majoris Turris Iuxta Pontem). Stone from Dundry Hill outside Bristol transported by boat to Newport.

See: Knight J. (1991) page 25.
Ref: Glamorgan County Record Office D/DC. M/45.

Humphrey. sixth earl of Stafford, created first duke of Buckingham

1447 - 1448
Account of William Kemeys, Receiver of the Lordship of Newport, from Michaelmas, 1447 to Michaelmas, 1448.
Woodwork in the castle-chambers repaired, and minor repairs to the castle buildings and to the long stable outside it. 66l.12s. 0½d. was spent on a new withdrawing room (camera retracta) next to the Chapel Tower.
Stone from Dundry Hill was transported from Bristol, stone called 'Lyas' shipped from Penarth, and 'walstone' (stone rubble for wall building) was quarried at Stow, next to Newport. The stone brought by sea was landed at the south end of the Shirehall.
One hundred small oaks were bought from Kirkelleyth (Llanhilleth, west of Pontypool).
Timber for scaffolding was cut at Henlles (Henllys) within the lordship.
18,000 Cornish slates (tegulus vocator Cornysshtile) were bought and two dozen pottery ridge tiles from Cardiff to le Synderhull near Newport Castle.
The north wall of the castle was raised in height by 3 feet with wall stone from Stow and 89 pieces of rag stone from Dundry 'for the battlement of the said wall'

Accounts published in Latin by Pugh T.B. 'The Marcher Lordships of South Wales 1415 - 1536 Select Documents' (1963) pages 227 - 232
Summarised in Knight J. (1991) page 26.
National Archives: Ministers accounts, with other manors in the lordship
SC/ 6/924/23-35
(Published in Pugh T.B. (1963). as S.C.6. 924/23, m.10)

Declaration of the Accounts of William Kemeys, Receiver of the Lordship of Newport, from Michaelmas,1447 to Michaelmas 1448
And in costes done upon the withdraght chamber annexed to the chapel tour, £86 17s 3½d.
And in costes done uppon the performing upon th'enhaunsyng of the wall of the north side of the sede castell by 6 fote standerde higher than hit was before, as hit appereth by the seyd accompt, £20 9s3d.
And in divers small reparaciones done in dyvers places within the castell, as hit appereth by the seyd accompt, 33s. 3d.
And in divers costes of th'eschekyr there, 18d.

Pugh T.B. 'The Marcher Lordships of South Wales 1415 - 1536 Select Documents' (1963) page 233
Lord Stafford's MSS. No. 1217, M.2.

Main building operations were complete. Repairs being made to the long stable outside the castle gate and to the palings of the castle ditch, and maintenance work on the woodwork.

Knight J. (1991)
Ref. Account roll National Archives SC 6, 924/24

1456 - 1457
The Castle underwent a good cleaning at a cost of 2l. 15s.6½d. in preparation of a visit by Humphrey Stafford (created duke of Buckingham in 1444). The stable outside the castle walls was also cleaned and stocked with food for the lord's arrival.

Reeves A.C. 'Newport Lordship 1317 -1536' (1979) page 141.

Death of Humphrey Stafford, first duke of Buckingham at the battle of Northampton. His heir was his grandson, Henry Stafford, second duke of Buckingham, who was a minor at the time.

1462 May 11th
Grant to William Harbart (Herbert), knight, during the minority of Henry, son of Humphrey, late earl of Stafford, son and heir of Humphrey, late duke of Buckingham, and so from heir to heir during the minority, of the custody of the castle, town and lordships of Newport, Coboy, Wenlloit and Meredith in South Wales, rendering 100l. yearly to the king.

Calendar of Patent Rolls I Edward IV. page 13

1464 - 1465
Ministers' accounts (Newport and Wentloog lordship) survive
Gwent Record Office MAN/B/90/0004

1471 April 25
Commission …. to seize all castles, lordships, manors, lands and possessions late of George, duke of Clarence, Richard, earl of Warwick etc. and their goods and chattels
…… appointment as receiver ….. Roger Vaughan, knight, in the parts of South Wales. Vacated.

Calendar of Patent Rolls 10 Edward IV pages 218-219

1471 February 21

Commitment to Richard earl of Warwick and Salisbury, - by mainprise, found in the Exchequer, of Richard Middleton of Middleton, co. Westmorland, 'gentilman' and William Grene of Bressyngham [recte Gressynham] co. Lancaster, 'gentilman' of the keeping of the castle and lordship of Newport, with their members and appurtances, in South Wales, which are in the king's hand by the death of Humphrey, late duke of Buckingham and by reason of the minority of Henry his kinsman and heir, to hold from Michaelmas last for as long as the premises shall remain in the king's hands, at a yearly farm of as much as may be agreed upon between him and the treasurer by Michaelmas next; with clause touching maintenance of houses, enclosures and buildings, and support of charges and with proviso for the increase of the farm.

Calendar of Fine Rolls 49 Henry VI page 295 ( Readeption of Henry VI)

1473 January 4th
Licence for the king's kinsman Henry duke of Buckingham, kinsman and heir of Humphrey, late duke of Buckingham, tenant in chief, viz. son of his son Humphrey, to enter freely after Michaelmas last, without proof of age or other formality, into all castles, towns, lordships, cantreds, commotes, manors, lands, fee farms, annuities, reversions, rents, services, hundreds, offices, fees, views of frank-pledge, courts leet, sheriffs turns, liberties, franchises, fairs, markets, jurisdictions, knights' fees, advowsons and other possessions in England, Wales, the marches of Wales and the town of Calais of which the late duke was seized and which should descend to him.
By the King at Westminster.

Calendar of Patent Rolls 12 Edward IV page 367

Rebellion and execution of Henry, second duke of Buckingham

1484 January 7th
Grant for life to William Kemes of an annuity of 10 marks from the issues of the king's lordship of Newport in South Wales.

Calendar of Patent Rolls 1 Richard III page 414

1484 February 11th
Grant for life to the king's servant Thomas Bawdrip, one of the esquires of the body, of the office of constable of the castle of Newport in Wales, with wages of 5 marks yearly from the issues of the castle, and an annuity of 50 marks from the same for his fee as esquire of the body.
By privy seal.

Calendar of Patent Rolls 1 Richard III page 380

1484 February 11th
Grant for life to the king's servant Thomas ap John, one of the yeomen of the king's chamber, of the office of porter of the castle of Newport in South Wales with custody of the warren of rabbits there, lately pertaining to Henry, late duke of Buckingham, and in the king's hands by reason of his rebellion, with wages of 4d. daily from issues of the lordship of Newport and all other profits.
By privy seal.

Calendar of Patent Rolls 1 Richard III page 405 and page 410

1484 May 11th
Grant to Nicholas Spicer, one of the esquires of the body, of the office of receiver of the lordships of Brekenoke, Neweport, Uske and Carlion in South Wales with fees of 20 marks yearly.

Calendar of Patent Rolls 1 Richard III page 437

1484 September 13th
Grant to James Tirell sheriff of the king's lordship of Wenllouk, and steward of the king's lordship of Newport, Wenllouk ……

Calendar of Patent Rolls 2 Richard III page 474

1484 September 25th
Appointment of William Mistelbroke and Richard Lusshe as auditors of castle and lordship of Newport …….

Calendar of Patent Rolls 2 Richard III

1497 - 1498
Ministers' accounts survive.
National Library of Wales Tredegar MSS & Documents vol I p7 147

Execution of Edward, third duke of Buckingham

Extracted from: Value and State of the possessions of the late Duke of Buckingham.

The borough of the town of Newport. Wales, with the whole lordship, adjoining the King's great lordships of Cardeiff, Uske and Carlion, is in value 18l. 10s. 5½p. It has a goodly haven, "well occupied, with small crayes (i), whereunto a very great ship may resort." "Upon the same haven is a proper castle and three towers, adjoining just to the water ; the middlest tower having a vault or entry to receive into the said castle a good vessel. In the said castle is a fair hall, proper lodgings after the waterside, and many houses of offices ; howbeit, in manner, all is decayed in covering and floors, specially of timber work. There is great plenty of free stone and rough stone lying within the castle, for repareling (ii) of the same." "Over the castle is the chequier chamber (iii), and under the same is the porter's lodge and prison for punishment and safe keeping of offenders and transgressors ; which houses of necessity must be maintained and well upholden."
List of lordships, knight's fees, and advowsons (iv). The stewardship was lately occupied by the earl of Wiltshire, during pleasure, at 13l. 6s. 8d. ; "and for the exercising of the same room John Morgan, the King's servant, being a substantial young man of an 100l. lands, and Thomas Morgan, his uncle, being a sad gentleman, and also of good substance, be deputed lieutenants for the well ordering of the country." Without the help of any commissioner they have put the lordship in good order, and the country is "best content to be at their leading." The said Thomas formerly held the office of lieutenant under the said earl, receiving yearly 6l. 13s. 4d. He has been deputed also to continue in his office of receiver ; and he is commonly "charged every year with the receipt of the sum of 600 or 700 marks (v), there is assigned further unto him, as was afore, the office of constableship of the castle, if so it please the King's grace, at 56s. 8d." The portership of the castle is also assigned to him (2d. a day), till the King's pleasure be known. The mayor, coroner and beadle of the town, without fees, are "chosen by election". The office of approver (vi), being a special office, for the King's profit necessary to be occupied by one resident in the lordship, for the praising all distresses and cattle brought in for payment of rent, at 2d.per diem. "Wards in Wenllouge : "-Thomas Lewes, in the custody of Edmund Vanne, having lands worth 20l. ; John Ap Morgan in the custody of John Hontelay, esceator, having lands worth 9l (vii).
Number of the manorhood 532.

(i)  The 1867 published version of the original document gives a translation of 'crayes' as 'creeks'. However a 'cray' is traditionally a small trading vessel used in the Severn.
(ii)  Literally 're-paling' but probably meaning 'repairing'.
(iii)  The chamber devoted to business.
(iv)  Right of patronage of church livings.
(v)  A denomination of gold, usually regarded as equivalent to 8 ounces.
(vi)  In this sense the approver was the officer who acted as a steward or bailiff.
(vii)  Refers to lands where ownership has lapsed and is now held on behalf the King.

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic of Henry VIII (1519-23) Vol.III part 1. page 507.

Ownership in the hands of Henry VIII until his death in 1547 - then granted to William Herbert (created first earl of Pembroke in 1551).

1570 September 12th
Tenentes per indenture (Tenants by indenture [i.e. by deed] )
(Maltilda Hayle widow holds … 1 parcel of enclosed vacant land, 2½ burgages adjacent to the fosse [i.e. ditch or moat] of the castle of the lord in the same place, with 2 parcels of the said fosse by the boundary stones(?) and boundaries, by ancient usage and custom … in return for a rent and repairing the fosse etc. 2 shillings 6 pennies.

Survey of the Rents of the earl of Pembroke 12 Elizabeth 1

National Library of Wales Ms. 17008D.
See: Sir Joseph Bradney (edited by Madeleine Gray) A History of Monmouthshire Volume 5. The Hundred of Newport. 1993. pages 32 - 35

The castle leased to Sir William Herbert of St Julian's near Newport on condition that he kept it in good repair.

The castle leased by Thomas Morgan of Ruperra

Engraving - The East View of Newport Castle, in the County of Monmouth (Proprietor John Burgh Esq.) S & N Buck.
Also shows an arch or gate over the west end of the bridge to the south of the castle, and possibly the mill to the north of the castle.

The western ditch used for part of the Monmouthshire canal and the remaining ditch filled with spoil.

The shell of the castle stands near the bridge, on the right bank of the Usk; it is a massive structure, but of small dimensions and simple form. The figure is nearly right-parallelogram; it is built of rubble, but coigned with hewn stones.
In the middle of the side towards the water is a square tower, which seems to have been the keep or citadel, flanked with small turrets, and containing the remains of a spacious apartment called the state room, with a vaulted stone roof. Underneath is a sally-port leading to the river, with a beautiful gothic arch, once defended by a portcullis, the groove of which is still visible. At each extremity of this side are octagon towers, one of which, though much mutilated, is in-habited. To the left of the middle tower are the remains of the baronial hall, with a large fire-place; the windows are of the gothic species, and richly decorated. Evident vestiges of numerous apartments are seen in the area, and several chimneys appear in the side walls…..
The castle was undoubtedly strengthened with a deep moat, which has been recently filled the earth from the excavation of the canal, and by strong walls on the side of the town. There is likewise a considerable plot of ground, formerly called the Castle Green, but now converted into wharfs, which appears to have been joined to the fortress by means of a drawbridge.

William Coxe. 'An Historical Tour of Monmouthshire' 1801. Vol.I. page 49.

Circa 1820
A brewery established in the castle buildings.

1845 September 27th
"Amongst the coins discovered here (Newport Castle) are those of the Henries, and several base coins of the age of Constantine, but too corroded to decypher.
In the castle precinct was excavated in 1834, a gold coin of Edward the 3rd, about the size of a half-acrown ; weight 117½ grains, Troy.

W.M. Townsend in a note on Antiquarian Researches. Monmouth Merlin and South Wales Advertiser 27 September 1845

The walls of the Castle were surrounded by a wide deep moat, which every high tide must have supplied, and must have been crossed by drawbridges. The principle entrance appears to have been on the south side. If a gate were here it has been entirely removed with the wall …
The only other remaining portion of the wall is a part of the north wall, where are several fireplaces, showing that there was arrange of buildings two stories in height against that portion of the wall. …
The north gate … all traces of it have long been removed, and the only record of it is the remembrance that some one who once dwelt in the Castle claimed a right of way at that spot.
The kitchen-offices (of Newport Castle) were most probably situated near the apartments of the lord, and below them, and near the south tower; but all traces of them have long been removed. About twenty or thirty years ago there was a prodigious oven discovered there, 12feet in diameter, about 3 feet high in the middle, and 18 inches at the sides ; the wall of the vaulted roof was18 inches thick ; and the floor was of very thick concrete. It appears to have been new, and not much used.

C.O.S. Morgan History and Description of Newport Castle Archaeologia Cambrensis 1885 page 276.

The South Tower acquired by Newport Corporation.

The rest of the castle purchased by Lord Tredegar.

The ruins placed in care of the Office of Works.

The South Tower added to the area in guardianship.
The remains of the brewery cleared away and the medieval masonry made safe.

The area behind the surviving castle was destroyed by road widening. The junction of the north curtain wall, north gate and north tower was noticed during construction work. A garderobe pit near the north tower contained 15th or early 16th century pottery some six handled cups of Surrey White ('Tudor Green') ware, an associated brown ware cup and a quantity of blue roofing slate of Cornish origin.

Jeremy K. Knight Newport Castle in The Monmouthshire Antiquary VII 1991. page 34.

© Bob Trett 2007